Table of Contents

General Notes
Turn Overview

Sequence Details

Economics Sequence
Private Market
Exports
Military Build/Salvage
Economic Build/Salvage
Research & Develop
Improvements

Military Sequence
Rapid Deployment
Air/Navy Combat
Air/Navy Movement
Air/Army Combat
Air/Army Movement

Admin. Sequence
Production
Consumption
Imports

Wrap-up Sequence
New Private Market Prices
Rankings
Intelligence
Newsletter

Special Rules/Notes
Map
Stockpiles
Setup Worksheet

Related Links
Game #3 Market Prices
Game #4 Market Prices
Game #5 Market Prices
Economic Build Costs
Military Build Costs
R&D Costs
Improvement Costs
Air Combat Values
Navy Combat Values
Army Combat Values
Combat Results Tables
Consumption Rates
Glossary

Return to:
G. E. Home Page
Game #3 Home Page
Game #4 Home Page
Game #5 Home Page
Economics Turn Form
Military Turn Forms
Phases 1 & 2
Phase 3
Phase 4
Phase 5

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Gunboat Empires
 1990, 1998, 2000, 2001

Rules of Play - Version 3.41
October 23, 2001

All rights reserved. No parts of these rules, website, game map, or any Players' Aide software may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of John M. Morris.

This page provides specific rules of play for the play-by-mail game, Gunboat Empires. If you are looking for a general description of Gunboat Empires, this may prove to be a bit too technical. But, maybe not... read on and decide for yourself!

General Notes
  • How does a play-by-mail game of Gunboat Empires work? Gunboat Empires consists of 35 turns. For each turn, every player submits an Economics Turnsheet and a Military Turnsheet which describe their actions that turn. (actions like: building new economic facilities or military units, developing new technologies, attacking someone, redeploying military forces around your country). These internet turnsheets are dynamic and will help validate your turn. For instance, if a country has not yet developed Tanks, then Tanks will not appear on the list of military units that may be built in the military construction phase. Similarly, research and development prerequisites must be met before a technology will appear on the list of potential R&D projects that turn. The turnsheets will calculate your market sales and purchases and compare your total sales against your merchant fleet capacity. In a similar manner, the military turnsheet will alert you if you try to exceed your sealift capacity. You may also save your turnsheets and revise them any time up to the turn deadline.

    After the turn deadline has passed, the moderator collects all the turnsheets, processes them through his program (on a PC not connected to the internet!), and publishes the results back to the website. He e-mails the players to let them know the turn is done and they retrieve their results (a password-protected html file). Public information is also posted on the website for everyone to see.

  • Sequences: (Economics, Military, Administrative). Gunboat Empires approximates the simultaneous actions of all 28 countries but a turn is actually processed in a series of sequences which are further broken down into phases.
  • Causality: Each phase is completely processed for all 28 players before processing for the next phase begins. The results of one phase will/could impact future phases. For example:
    • If you salvaged an army division in the Military Build phase, you could use those commodities to pay the build costs in the Economics Build phase.
    • If you raise your army efficiency during the Improvements phase, your army units will now fight at this greater efficiency during the Air/Army Combat phase.
    • Conversely, if you raise your Basic Technology level (BTech) during the Improvements phase from 20 to 100, you would not be able to develop Special Forces during the R&D phase because R&D occurs before the Improvements phase. As of the R&D phase, your BTech is 20 and the prerequisite BTech level for Special Forces is 75. You could develop Special Forces on the following turn.
  • Limitations: You can't do everything that you would like. The game imposes restrictions and sometimes multiple layers of restrictions! For instance,
    • Military units may only be built in regions with depots or shipyards. Depots and shipyards may not be built in a region unless sufficient population units are available (unemployed).
    • New technologies (developments) require that you possess a minimum BTech and some technologies require that you develop other technologies (prerequisites) first. e.g. you must develop the Combustion Engine before you may develop Tanks.
  • No deficit spending: You may never take an action that would cause any of your commodity stockpiles to drop below zero.
  • Economic Complexes: automatically produce commodities each turn (except depots and shipyards which merely enable you to build military units).
    • Heavy Industries produce Supply Points (SP).
    • Light Industries produce Light Points (LP).
    • Mines produce Mineral Points (MP).
    • Energy Complexes product Energy Points (EP).
    • Farms produce Food Points (FP) AND Agricultural Points (AP).
    • Research Laboratories produce Research Points (RP).
    • Each Depot permits you to build one air or army unit per turn in that region.
    • Each Shipyards permits you to build one naval unit per turn in that region.
  • Publishing: After processing all the players' turns, the moderator wraps up the loose ends in a "Turn Wrap-up" Sequence. The moderator publishes some news about the turn's events to the web site. In addition, some up-to-date intelligence reports and the current rankings are published.

Turn Overview

All player-turns are processed in three sequences: Economics, Military, and Administrative. Each sequence is broken into several phases. Each phase is resolved for all 28 players before, the next phase starts. Following these three phases, the moderator generates individual turn results for each player and publishes some general information to the game's website.

A brief outline of each sequence follows:

  • Economics Sequence Phases: Each phase in this sequence is completely processed for all players before the next phase is begun. There are 7 phases in the Economics Sequence:
    • Sell commodities to the Commodity Market for Gold
    • Buy commodities from the Commodity Market with Gold
    • Export commodities to one or two other countries
    • Build new and disband old new military units
    • Build new and salvage old economic facilities
    • Research and Develop a new technology
    • Improvements (Raising efficiencies and BTech Level)
  • Military Sequence Phases: The movement phases (1, 3, and 5) are resolved simultaneously but the two combat phases (2 and 4) are resolved one player at a time, in the descending order of their country's military efficiency (Air/Navy for phase 2 and Army efficiency for phase 4). These are the five phases of the military sequence:
    1. Rapid Deployment Task Force - Every country has the simultaneous option of moving one ground task force comprised of air and/or army units. A second task force may be formed if the player has developed "National Highways".
    2. Air/Navy Combat - In descending order of air/navy efficiency, each country issues combat orders for up to six task forces comprised of air, army, and/or naval units.
    3. Air/Navy Movement - Each country simultaneously moves up to six task forces of air, army, and/or naval units within controlled regions.
    4. Air/Army Ground Combat - In descending order of army efficiency, each country issues combat orders for up to six task forces comprised of air and/or army units.
    5. Air/Army Ground Movement - Each country simultaneously moves up to six task forces of air and/or army units within controlled ground regions.
  • Administrative Sequence Phases: This Sequence does not require the player's involvement. The moderation program will complete this phase but you should understand what is happening during this phase.
    • Economic facilities produce commodities
    • Economic facilities consume commodities
    • Population consumes commodities
    • Imports from other countries are received
    • New Commodity Prices are calculated based on the market buy and sell orders
    • Rankings are determined
    • Public web reports are published
    • Individual turn results are published
    • The turn completion and the next turn's deadline are announced to all players

Turn Sequence Details

Economics Sequence

Phase 1 - Private Market Sales

  • Gold: is the one commodity that you cannot produce. It is only created when a player sells commodities to the Commodity Market. As such, it is imperative that you sell excess commodities to the market.
  • Prices: The price of each commodity is expressed in Gold per lot of 100 but sales or purchases may be made in any integer amount.
    For example, if the sell price of MPs was 250 and you sold 30 MPs, you would receive 75 Gold (30 * 250/100).
  • Limitations: Merchant capacity: Every country has a maximum number of commodities they may sell to the market equal to 2000 plus 500 times their total number of merchant fleets. (Each merchant fleet can carry up to 500 points of commodities to the market and a country has an inherent market capacity of 2000 commodity points). Note: If you develop Logistics, the capacity for each merchant fleet will rise to 600 commodities per turn.
  • Merchants: You don't have to actually move the merchants in order to sell to the market. Their destruction in combat has no effect on market sales because military combat is resolved much later than private market sales (though obviously losing your merchants would affect your ability to sell commodities on the following turn!)

Phase 2 - Commodity Market Purchases

  • Spread: The buy price and sell price will always vary by 20 percent (rounded to the nearest integer).
  • Consistency: Market prices are the same for all players.

Phase 3 - Exports

  • Definition: Exports are commodities that you trade to another country. Usually you export to someone in exchange for them exporting commodities to you but that is not always the case.
  • Limitations: You may order no more than two exports (but they could be sent to the same country).
  • Restrictions: You may only export to player countries. You may send no more than 999 of each commodity per export.
  • Guaranteed Arrival: If you export commodities to someone they will arrive. You do not need to special trade routes or allocate ships or railroads to carry the commodities. The exports will not be blocked by enemy forces. In short, you just specify the quantities to be exported and the country number of the recipient and relax.
  • Imports: One man's exports are another man's imports but imports don't arrive until the Administrative Sequence and thus aren't available until then.
  • Trade Enforcement: The rules are blind to your trade deals. If someone was supposed to send you something but didn't, that's not a computer bug. You and your trading partner can "solve" this problem!

Phase 4 - Building and Salvaging New Military Units

  • Concept: Armies, navies, and air forces can protect your nation from covetous neighbors. They can also help you capture the fruits of your neighbors' labors! (or die trying). To build or salvage military units, you specify on the Economics Turnsheet:
    • Location: The 5-character region id of one of your land regions;
    • Quantity: An integer from 1 to 9;
    • Type of Unit;
    • Operation: Either Build or Salvage.
  • Locations: Army and air units may only be built (or salvaged) in regions with depots and naval units are likewise restricted to regions with shipyards.
  • Limits:
    • Every player is limited to a total of 7 orders per turn unless they have developed 'Military Industrial Complex'.
    • No more than one air or army unit may be built or salvaged per depot per turn. The total number of units built and salvaged in a region in a turn may not exceed the number of depots (or shipyards) present. i.e. if a region has 3 depots, you could build 2 army units and salvage a third.
    • No more than one naval unit may be built or salvaged per shipyard per turn (similar to the depot example above).
    • A salvage order may only have a quantity of 1. (e.g. If you wish to salvage 3 Light Infantry, you will have to use 3 orders).
    • You must control the region where you build (or salvage).
  • Salvages: You may decide to scrap obsolete or doomed units.
    • Salvaged units will be dismantled before the military sequence so they will not add the the region's defense if attacked.
    • You will receive thirty percent of the SP and RP build costs associated with that unit.
    • The SP and RP commodities are immediately available (they could even be used to help pay the build costs of the next military build order). So, why not list your salvage orders before your build orders?!
    • Sealift capacity may not be salvaged.
  • Sealift capacity: is built in shipyards like a naval vessel, but no sealift units exist on the map. Instead, your sealift capacity is the number of army units you are permitted to move in the Air/Navy Combat and Air/Navy Movement phases (2 and 3) of the Military Sequence.
  • Costs: The cost of building military units is described on the Military Unit Costs page.
  • Descriptions: The following is a complete list of the military units you may build:
    • Light Infantry - A division consisting of mostly rifle infantry troops, some artillery. Best for defending regions.
    • Heavy Infantry - A division consisting of rifle infantry with more mortars, machine guns, artillery. More offensive firepower but still good for defending regions.
    • Mechanized Infantry - An infantry division with even more firepower and some motor transport (speed and mobility). Good for offensive and defensive operations.
    • Tank - An early armored division, circa 1935. Best for offensive operations.
    • Panzer - A more powerful armored division, circa 1943. Speed, attacking punch, and mobility make this the ultimate offensive ground unit.
    • Biplane (Bi) - A squadron of World War I fighter planes. Better than nothing but not very powerful.
    • Fighter (Ftr/Ft) - A squadron of 1940-era fighter planes. Good for attacking enemy planes and providing a little combat bonus to army and navy units in the same region.
    • Bomber (Bmbr/Bm) - A squadron of 1940-era bomber planes. Poor at attacking enemy planes but provide a good combat bonus to army and navy units in the same region.
    • Jet Fighter (JF) - A squadron of late 1940's-era fighter planes. Excellent for attacking enemy planes and provide some combat bonus to army and navy units in the same region.
    • Jet Bomber (JB) - A squadron of early 1950's-era super bombers. They provide the maximum military combat modifier.
    • Escort (Esc/Es) - A flotilla of destroyers and frigates. Good for offensive and defensive operations.
    • Battleship (BB) - A single, large-gunned ship. Useful for offensive operations.
    • Dreadnought (DN) - A single, larger-gunned and armored ship that effectively renders the BB obsolete. Very useful for offensive and defensive operations.
    • Aircraft Carrier (CV) - A large ship that allows you to move air units at sea into combat. Very useful for offensive operations when accompanied by air units.
    • Type 1 Submarine (Sub1/S1) - A pack of World War I era submarines. Useful for attacking enemy surface vessels.
    • Type 2 Submarine (Sub2/S2) - A pack of more powerful World War II era submarines. Very useful for attacking enemy surface vessels.
    • Merchant (Mer/Mr) - A fleet of freighters and cargo vessels. May not attack and very poor on defense!
    • Sealift - An intangible representation of your ability to move army units into or out of sea regions.

Phase 5 - Building and Salvaging Economic Facilities

  • Concept: You can invest today's commodities to build more economic facilities to produce even more commodities tomorrow. You specify on your turnsheet:
    • Location: The 5-character region number;
    • Quantity: An integer from 1 to 9;
    • Type of Facility;
    • Operation: Either Build or Salvage.
  • Population: You need workers to run a facility. Each region has a given number of Population Units (Pop) each equivalent to 100,000 citizens. Each Pop allows the construction and operation of one facility. If all the Pop in a region is already "employed", no more facilities may be constructed in the region.
  • Limits: You are limited in your builds by:
    • Location: You must control the region.
    • Region type: The region must be a land region and shipyards may only be built in coastal land regions (not landlocked)!
    • Conquest: You may not build Air/Army Depots or Naval Shipyards in a region on the turn immediately after conquest.
    • Your ability to pay the build costs (SP, RP, and Gold);
    • Available/Unemployed Pop (for builds);
    • The number of facilities (for salvages);
    • Number of Orders - you only have 10 lines on your economics turnsheet. Everyone may issue 7 economic orders. If you have developed 'Business Schools' then you may issue up to 10 economic orders.
    • Quantity: No more than 9 facilities may be built per order and no more than 1 facility may be salvaged per order;
  • Salvages: You may decide to scrap inefficient facilities or facilities in danger of falling to an enemy.
    • You will immediately receive one third of the SP and RP costs associated with building the facility (but no Gold) and the pop unit that was utilized by the facility is now available.
    • These resources are immediately available for use by succeeding economic orders or in subsequent phases. As with the military salvages, on the economics turnsheet, you should list your salvage orders before your builds.
  • Costs: are described on the Economic Facilities Cost Chart.
  • Descriptions: The following is a complete list of the economic facilities that you may build:
    • Heavy Industries - These represent steel mills, automobile plants, durable good factories, etc. They produce Supply Points (SP's).
    • Light Industries - These represent service industries (insurance, accounting, law, banking, transportation, etc.). They produce Light Points (LP's)
    • Mines - These represent quarries/mines that produce iron, bauxite, manganese, sand, stone, gravel, etc. They produce Mineral Points (MP's).
    • Energy Plants - These represent coal mines, oil wells, electric power plants, hydroelectric dams, etc. They produce Energy Points (EP's).
    • Farms - These represent farms, ranches, orchards, fisheries, trappers, etc. They produce both Food Points (FP's) and Agriculture Points (AP's).
    • Research Laboratories - These represent research universities, industrial R&D departments, government labs, etc. They produce Research Points (RP's).
    • Air/Army Depots - These represent training bases, arms plants, armories, etc. Each depot allows you to build one air or army unit per turn.
    • Naval Shipyards - These represent training bases, drydocks, port facilities, etc. Each shipyard allows you to build one surface naval unit, submarine, or merchant unit per turn.

Phase 6 - Research & Development (New Technologies)

  • Concept: Researching and developing new technologies raises your economic production efficiencies, military efficiencies, and allows you to build new types of military units. Keeping pace in the development of new technologies is critical to world power.
  • Limit: You may develop no more than one new technology development each turn. This is not cumulative. If you do not develop anything in turn #5, you still may only develop one technology in turn #6.
  • BTech: The Basic Technology Level (BTech) represents the level of scientific knowledge achieved by the institutions of higher learning in your country. Each new technology requires that you first raise your BTech to a minimum level. You don't spend these BTech points to develop a technology, it is just threshold you must meet. You may increase your BTech level in the Improvements phase.
  • Prerequisites: In addition to the BTech prerequisite, some developments may also require that you first develop other technologies.
  • Costs: Click to see the R & D Cost Chart (including the required BTech levels and the prerequisite developments).
  • Descriptions: The following is a complete list of the technologies that you may develop:
    • Special Forces - Your Infantry units gain a bonus to their combat strength when attacking or defending in rough terrain in phase 4 (Special Forces does not affect except naval invasions - see Marines).
    • Large Artillery - You gain 10 points to your Army efficiency and you may now build Dreadnoughts.
    • Combustion Engine - A prerequisite for many other developments.
    • Army General Staff - You gain 25 points to your Army efficiency.
    • Biplanes - You gain 5 points to your Air/Navy efficiency and you may now build Biplanes (Prerequisite: Combustion Engine).
    • Coastal Submarines - You gain 10 points to your Air/Navy efficiency and you may now build Type 1 submarines (Prerequisite: Combustion Engine).
    • Public Schools - You gain 20 points to your Research Laboratory efficiency.
    • Coal-to-Oil Conversion - You gain 25 points to your Air/Navy efficiency and your naval task forces may now move an extra region per turn. (Prerequisite: Combustion Engine).
    • Assembly Line - You gain 5 points to your Heavy Industry, Light Industry, Mining, Energy, Food, and Agriculture efficiencies.
    • Marines - Your Infantry units gain a bonus to their combat strength when conducting naval invasions against clear terrain regions.
    • Tanks - You may now build Tank divisions (Prerequisite: Combustion Engine).
    • Underway Replenishment - You gain 50 points to your Air/Navy efficiency and your naval task forces may now move another extra region per turn (Prerequisite: Coal-to-Oil Conversion).
    • Naval Convoys - Your surface naval forces will now fight simultaneous combat with enemy submarines.
    • Oil Tankers - You gain 50 points to your Air/Navy efficiency (Prerequisite: Coal-to-Oil Conversion).
    • Mass Production - You gain 10 points to your Heavy Industry, Light Industry, Mining, Energy, Food, and Agriculture efficiencies (Prerequisites: Combustion Engine, Assembly Line).
    • Radio - You gain 10 points to your Air/Navy and Army efficiencies.
    • Cinemas - You gain 10 points to your Heavy Industry, Light Industry, Mining, Energy, Food, and Agriculture efficiencies.
    • Military Industrial Complex - This development raises your Army and Air/Navy efficiencies 10 points each AND permits you to issue up to 10 military build/salvage orders per turn. (Prerequisite: Mass Production).
    • Airplanes - You gain 10 points to your Air/Navy efficiency and you may now build Fighters and Bombers (Prerequisite: Biplanes).
    • National Colleges - You gain 20 points to your Research efficiency (Prerequisite: Public Schools).
    • Naval Air - You gain 25 points to your Air/Navy efficiency, you may now build Aircraft Carriers, and you may now move Fighters, Bombers, Jet Fighters, and Jet Bombers in phase 2 (Air/Naval Combat). (Prerequisites: Oil Tankers, Airplanes).
    • Business Schools - This development raises your Heavy and Light Industrial efficiencies 5 points each AND permits you to issue up to 10 economic build/salvage orders per turn. (Prerequisite: National College).
    • Advanced Submarines - You gain 10 points to your Air/Navy efficiency and you may now build Type 2 submarines (Prerequisite: Coastal submarines).
    • Logistics - Each of your merchants may now carry 600 commodities to market instead of 500.
    • Espionage - This development changes the outcome of naval and army Reconnaissance missions (conducted in phases 2 and 4 of the military sequence).
      Espionage DevelopedPossible Results (%)
      AttackerDefenderFailureSuccessComplete Success
      NoNo01000
      YesNo02575
      NoYes75250
      YesYes255025

      • Failure: The attacker receives no information. The defender is alerted to the attempted reconnaissance mission.
      • Success: The attacker receives information and the defender is alerted to the attempted reconnaissance mission.
      • Complete Success: The attacker receives information. The defender is unaware that the reconnaissance mission was conducted.

      The attacker will not know whether a recon mission was successful or completely successful - the printout on the turn results will look identical! (Prerequisite: Radio)
    • Combined Arms - You gain 50 points to your Air/Navy and Army efficiencies. In addition, this development permits your faster units to conduct Blitzkrieg attacks. (Prerequisites: Airplanes, Large Artillery, Tanks, Army General Staff).
    • Radar - You gain 25 points to your Air/Navy efficiency (Prerequisite: Radio).
    • Fertilizers - You gain 20 points to both your Food and Agriculture efficiencies.
    • Mechanization - You gain 10 points to your Army efficiency and you may now build Mechanized Infantry and Panzer divisions (Prerequisite: Tanks).
    • National Highways - You gain 5 points to your Heavy Industry, Light Industry, Mining, Energy, Food, Agriculture, and Research efficiencies, 25 points to your Army efficiency, and you may now move a second task force in the Rapid Deployment phase of the Military Sequence (Prerequisite: Mechanization).
    • Universal Suffrage - You gain 10 points to your Heavy Industry, Light Industry, Mining, Energy, Food, Agriculture, and Research efficiencies.
    • Recycling - This reduces your population's EP consumption by 20% (from 5 per Pop unit to 4).
    • Jet Engines - You gain 25 points to your Air/Navy efficiency and you may now build Jet Fighters and Jet Bombers (Prerequistie: Airplanes).
    • Computers - You gain 10 points to your Heavy Industry, Light Industry, Mining, Energy, Food, Agriculture, Research, Army, and Air/Navy efficiencies.

Phase 7 - Improvements

  • Concept: You can invest today's commodities to raise the production and military efficiencies for tomorrow. An economic efficiency level equals the quantity of a commodity produced by a given resource or industrial facility. When you raise an efficiency to a new level, each associated facility will produce at the new level but will still consume at the old level. (consumption rates)
  • Limits: No efficiency may be raised more than 10 points per turn with the exception of BTech which may be raised up to 99 points per turn. In addition, no efficiency may ever be raised to a level higher than 999.
  • Effects: The new efficiency will take effect prior to the beginning of the Military Sequence (military efficiencies in time for combat and economic efficiencies in time for production!)
  • BTech: The Basic Technology Level represents the country's relative scientific and industrial infrastructure and each new technology requires you to reach a certain BTech level before the development may be made.
  • Costs: are listed here.

Military Sequence

Six items of jargon defined and three general rules explained:

  • Combat (or Attack): A task force of yours attacks (enters) a region you don't control. You will attack any forces that you encounter.
  • Movement: A task force of yours enters a region you control.
  • Control: A region (sea or land) is assigned to the last player to have military units present. In many ways, control of a land region is similar to ownership.
  • Phase: Your military turnsheet is broken into 5 phases, a Rapid Deployment Phase, an Air/Naval Combat Phase, an Air/Naval Movement Phase, an Air/Army Combat Phase, and an Air/Army Movement Phase.
  • Plot: A sequence of adjacent regions through which a task force is ordered to move (or attack).
  • Task Force: A group of units that start in the same region and are given the same plot.
  • No Double Duty: No unit may be assigned to more than one task force in the same phase.
  • Instant Mobilization: A unit may be assigned to a task force on the turn it is built and it will attack/defend at full strength.
  • Combat Resolution: With the possible exception of Submarine Combat and Attrition, combat is resolved by taking the total attack combat strength of the attacking units, multiplying it by the attacker's military efficiencies and comparing it the the total defense combat strength of the defending units multiplied by the defender's military efficiencies. The resulting ratio is then compared to a combat resolution table. One side will win and the other will lose. The winner controls the region following combat. In general, the stronger you are and the weaker your opponent is, the lower your losses.
  • Turn Results: It is important to note that your turn results will contain the results of any battles you had that turn and they will be listed in the order they were processed.

Phase 1 - Rapid Deployment Task Force(s)

  • Concept: These one or two task forces help you reinforce weak points in your defenses. Only movement is permitted in this phase.
  • Limits: Only air and army units may move. All movement must be between adjacent controlled land regions.
  • Base Movement: One task force of air and/or army units that start the turn in a land region may move to an adjacent controlled land region.
  • Airplanes/Mechanization/Jet Engines: Fighters, Bombers, Jet Fighters, Jet Bombers, Mechanized Infantry, and Panzers may move up to two regions in this phase. Other units (Light Infantry, Heavy Infantry, Tanks and Biplanes) would be prohibited from joining this faster task force but a task force consisting of slower and faster units could still move one space and stop.
  • National Highways: This technology allows you to form a second task rapid deployment task force each turn.

Phase 2 - Air/Navy Combat

  • Concept: You may create up to six task forces in this phase, comprised of naval or submarine units. These task forces may attack uncontrolled sea regions, invade enemy land regions, raid enemy land regions, or recon enemy regions.
  • Order of Resolution: All of the task forces of the player with the highest Air/Navy efficiency will be resolved first and simultaneously. Next, the task forces of the player with the second-highest Air/Navy efficiency will be resolved, etc. If the attacker and defender both have air units in the battle, combat between the two air forces will be resolved prior to the naval, sub, or invasion battles.
  • Limits:
    • You may plot up to six task forces.
    • Movement between two land regions is not allowed; you must move from one land region to a sea region and then you may move into the second land region.
    • Your Sealift (number of transports) will limit the total number of army units you may assign to task forces in this phase and phase 3 together (e.g. if you had a sealift capacity of 8 and you assigned 3 army units to task forces in phase 2, you could move up to 5 army units in phase 3.)
    • You may not mix submarines and surface ships/air units in an Air/Navy Combat Task Force.
    • Biplanes and merchants may not join task forces in this phase (biplanes are assumed to have too limited a range and merchants have no attack value and you would generally want to keep them out of danger anyway).
    • You must assign at least one army unit to an Invasion mission.
  • Movement Rates: An Air/Navy task force may move through up to one region and then attack a region. Developing 'Coal-to-Oil Conversion' will permit you to move up to two regions before attacking, and 'Underway Replenishment' will permit you to move up to three regions before attacking a fourth region.
  • Combined Task Forces: Two or more task forces may be combined to make a joint attack if they attack the same region and conduct the same mission.
  • Allied Task Forces: do not exist. You may not combine your forces with those of your allies. You must sink or swim on your own!
  • Allied Movement Permissions: You have no allies in the military phase. You will fight anyone you encounter. Anyone who attempts 'movement' through regions you control will have their task force cancelled. Anyone who attempts to 'attack' a region of yours will fight your units present (if any). Close planning with your allies is necessary to prevent accidental combat.
  • Missions: Each task force must be assigned to one of six mission types.
    • Navy Attack - A task force mission with no Subs attacks a sea region.
    • Sub Attack - A task force with only Subs attacks a sea region.
    • Invasion - A task force of at least one army unit (no Subs) attacks a land region. Note: The attacking army units in a naval invasion will use their Air/Navy efficiency to calculate combat strength, not their Air/Army efficiency. The defending army units will defend with their Air/Army efficiency and defending air and naval units will defend with their Air/Navy efficiency.
    • Naval Reconnaissance - A task force of only one surface ship or air unit (no subs or army units) that will "attack" an enemy region and then immediately return to the region from which it "attacked" the recon'd region (no combat will occur). You will receive a report on the overall size and general composition of the enemy force(s) in the region at the time of the mission as well as some details on the economic facilities in the region.
    • Navy Raid - A task force with no army or sub units attacks a land region.
    • Sub Raid - A task force with only subs attacks a land region.
  • Raids: In either type of raid, the task force will enter an enemy land region and attack any air and/or naval units encountered. If any of your units survive, they will immediately withdraw to the region from which they entered the raided region. Combined task forces will withdraw en masse to the first task force's entry-region.
  • Combat: Combat is resolved until at least one side is completely eliminated. The survivor controls the region though it is possible that both sides could be eliminated (due to rounding of small numbers). An exception is Invasions: A failed invasion would cost the attacker all of its army units but only a nominal number of its naval units.
  • Air Units: Biplanes may not join Air/Navy combat task forces. Other air units may only move in this phase if their task force contains at least one aircraft carrier. If the task force does not move (i.e. it attacks an adjacent region), then air units may participate without containing an aircraft carrier.
  • Air Unit Modifiers: Following Air Combat, no more than one side (attacker or defender) will have air units in the region. The combat strength of the naval and/or sub units on that side will be increased for the battle. (Associated chart)
  • Submarine Combat Resolution: A submarine task force (or defensive force) will conduct a surprise attack on enemy forces in the region attacked. Following that round of combat, combat resolution is conducted as normal (Odds calculation Att:Def). However, if the non-sub combatant has developed "Convoys" the special attack will be negated. If submarines are part of a mixed defensive force (w/surface ships), no special sub rules will take effect. The subs' combat strength will be added into the defensive total and the defenders will be treated as if they were all surface units.
  • Naval Invasion Modifiers:
    • Intrinsic defense - if the defender is a player-country (#1-#28), an intrinsic defense equivalent to two Light Infantry will be added to their defense strength.
    • Defending army units (and intrinsic defense) in a region with Clear terrain will have their base combat strength increased by 40%.
    • Defending army units (and intrinsic defense) in a region with Rough terrain will have their base combat strength increased by 80%.
    • Marines: If the attacker has developed this technology, their Infantry units will have their base combat strength increased by 40% if the region's terrain is clear, and 20% if the region's terrain is rough.
  • Sealift: Your Sealift limits the total number of army units you may assign to task forces in Phases 2 and 3 combined. Note that this does not limit the number of army units you may have in sea regions but only the maximum number that may move or attack in a turn. Each army unit lost in this phase (except in Invasions) will reduce your Sealift by one though your Sealift will never drop below zero.
  • Casualties (Sub Raids and Sub Attacks): The surface force will lose units in this order: Merchants, Escorts, Army units, Dreadnoughts, Battleships, Air units, Aircraft Carriers, and Submarines. Sub losses are taken from S1 subs, then S2 subs.
  • Casualties (Air-to-Air Combat): Air units are always lost in this order (for attacker and defender): Biplanes, Fighters, Bombers, Jet Fighters, and Jet Bombers.
  • Casualties (Naval Raids and Naval Attacks): Surface ships will lose units in this order: Escorts, Battleships, Dreadnoughts, Air units, Aircraft Carriers, Merchants, Army units (if combat occurs in a sea region), Type 1 subs, and then Type 2 subs.
  • Casualties (Invasions): The attacker will lose units in this order: Panzers, Tanks, Mechanized Infantry, Light Infantry, Heavy Infantry, and air units. Other than an Escort ship, none of the attacking naval units are at risk. Defenders will lose units in this order: Escorts, Battleships, Dreadnoughts, S1 subs, S2 subs, Air units, Light Infantry, Heavy Infantry, Tanks, Mechanized Infantry, Panzers, and Aircraft Carriers.
  • Air Units: may end this phase in a sea region with no consideration of aircraft carriers.
  • Combat Values: The attack and defense values are listed on the Military Values page.

Phase 3 - Air/Navy Movement

  • Concept: Controlling multiple contiguous sea regions will permit you to redeploy your military forces over long distances. No combat will occur in this phase - as with all movement, the task force plot is restricted to controlled regions. This can be especially effective for rushing reinforcements to key coastal land regions prior to phase 4!
  • Resolution: All task forces are resolved simultaneously.
  • Limits: No more than six task forces may be plotted. Movement between two land regions is not allowed (of course they may move from one land region to a sea region and then to the second land region).
  • Sealift: Your Sealift capacity limits the total number of army units which may join task forces in the Air/Navy Combat and Air/Navy Movement phases combined. Note that this does not limit the number of your army units that may end the turn in sea regions but only the maximum number that may move or attack in a turn.
  • Movement Rates: Every task force may move up to three regions per turn. If you have developed 'Coal-to-Oil Conversion', you may move up to 4 regions. If you have developed 'Underway Replenishment', you may move up to 5 regions.
  • Conditional Movement: You may order conditional movement plot for a task force. (i. e. you may order a movement plot into a region that you don't control but hope to capture in phase 2.) If, as of phase 3, you do not control all of the plotted regions, the task force will be cancelled and will not move from its starting region.
  • Moving Air Units: If air units end this phase in a sea region, sufficient aircraft carriers must be present on which to land. Each aircraft carrier will support up to 2 air squadrons. Any excess air units will be eliminated (Biplanes first, then Fighters, Bombers, Jet Fighters, and then Jet Bombers).

Phase 4 - Air/Army Ground Combat

  • Concept: This is a wargame, you know. You may wish to use all these military forces at your disposal and annex (attack) some neutral regions or even regions controlled by another Great Power. If you attack a land region and defeat the defending forces, you will gain control of the region and, after a turn's delay to assimilate the population, the region's economic facilities and population will begin producing and consuming just like the rest of your country! This is a good way to grow your economy though other players may contest your actions.
  • Order of Resolution: All of the task forces of the player with the highest Army efficiency will be resolved first and simultaneously. Next, the task forces of the player with the second-highest Army efficiency will be resolved, etc. If attacking task force contains air units and the defender also has air units in the region, then Air-to-Air combat will be resolved prior to the main battle and the victor will gain a bonus to the combat strength of its forces according to the type of surviving air units.
  • Limits:
    • No more than six task forces may be plotted.
    • No sea regions may be plotted (this is the land combat phase).
    • No task force may start from (form in) a land region captured in phase 2 (however, a task force may form in an adjacent region, move through a land region captured in phase 2, and then attack a third region.
  • Movement Rates: Each task force may move through one region prior to attacking an uncontrolled region.
  • Blitzkrieg: If you have developed 'Mechanization' and 'Combined Arms', you may order a task force to attack a second region! The blitzkrieg attack on the second region is contingent on winning the ground attack in the first region. If you lose that first ground attack, the blitzkrieg attack will be cancelled.
    Only certain units are "fast enough" to participate in the blitzkrieg attack - only Mechanized Infantry, Panzer, Fighter, Bomber, Jet Fighter, and Jet Bomber units will participate in the blitzkrieg attack. Slower task force units (Light and Heavy Infantry, Tanks, and Biplanes) will halt in the first region attacked. A blitzkrieg attack is not a distinct mission-type, you will order your task force to conduct a Ground Attack mission and fill in the blitzkrieg attack box on the military turnsheet.
  • Multiple Task Forces Attacking the Same Region: You may assign several task forces to attack the same region. They must be given the same Mission and their combat strengths will be combined for the attack. Once several task forces are combined, they may not be split. (if two task forces combine to attack a region, they could not 'blitzkrieg' different regions). Once combined, the task force will use the first task force to resolve any discrepencies, retreats, etc.
  • Missions: Each task force must be assigned to one of these three missions:
    • Ground Attack - A task force with at least one army unit attacks an enemy region. If the attacking forces survive, they remain in the region and region control passes to the attacker.
    • Reconnaissance - A one-unit task force attacks an enemy region. The task force temporarily enters the enemy region and then returns to the region from where it started the turn. The attacker will receive a report on the total number of defending units present (Air, Army, and Navy combined).
    • AttritionThe concept of an "attrition" mission is to grind down the enemy army with the expectation that you can replace your losses more easily than your enemy. The attacker enters the targeted region, makes his "Attrition", and returns back to the region from which he entered the combat. There is no possibility of capturing the region from the defender.
      After the number of enemy units destroyed is calculated for both sides, some adjustments may be necessary. For instance, if one side loses more units than they had, then casualties for both sides are reduced by the difference. (ex: The attacker has 12 units and the defender has 1. The attacker destroys 3 units and the defender destroys 1. The defender can't lose 3 units because he only has 1 in the combat so, his losses are reduced by 2 (3-2=1 ) and the attacker's are reduced by 2 (1-2=-1). Obviously negative numbers are rounded up to zero!)
      In addition to the units lost in combat, one "resource complex" is destroyed. If the region has no resource complexes prior to battle then nothing is destroyed.
  • Terrain: Units defending in rough terrain will receive a 40% bonus to their combat strength. Terrain has no effect on movement rates.
  • Special Forces: If either combatant has developed 'Special Forces' and the region contains rough terrain, their Infantry units will receive a 40% bonus to their combat strength.
  • Intrinsic Defense: When you attack a player-controlled (countries 1-28) land region, the defending force strength will be calculated as if it had an additional two Light Infantry divisions. This 'intrinsic defense' is not considered when determining the defender's losses. If the region is conquered, the new owner will receive the intrinsic defense if attacked.
  • Air Unit Modifiers: No more than one side will have Air Force units in the battle following Air-to-Air combat. The ground units of that combatant will gain bonus to their combat strengths for the battle. See the Military Values chart.
  • Casualties: Air combat is fought to the complete elimination of one side but Ground Combat is not (necessarily). If the attacker's result from the combat results table is "100" then they have lost the battle. The percentage combat losses on each side are multiplied by 0.4. Casualties are determined and then, the surviving attacking units will conduct an Attrition mission against the surviving defending units.
    The defender's casualties will be taken in this order: Heavy Infantry, Light Infantry, Biplanes, Fighters, Bombers, Jet Fighters, Jet Bombers, Mechanized Infantry, Tanks, Panzers, Escorts, S1 subs, S2 subs, Merchants, Battleships, Dreadnoughts, and Aircraft Carriers. The attacker's casualties will be taken in this order: Mechanized Infantry, Panzers, Tanks, Heavy Infantry, Biplanes, Fighters, Bombers, Jet Fighters, Jet Bombers, and Light Infantry.
  • Collateral Damage: Every time a region's control changes some facilities are destroyed. One heavy industry, one light industry, one research lab, and all the depots and shipyards are eliminated. No commodities are 'salvaged' by either side (the facilities are destroyed, not salvaged) but the previously employed Pop Units are now available for other uses.
  • Production Efficiencies: Recently captured facilities will produce at the new owner's efficiencies, regardless of the efficiencies of their previous controlling player. However, this production/consumption will not occur on the turn the region is captured.
  • Combat Strengths: are posted on the website.

Phase 5 - Air/Army Ground Movement

  • Concept: It is too late at this point to affect combat this turn but you may want to redeploy your air and army units to prepare for combat on subsequent turns. No combat will occur in this phase - you are restricted to 'moving' through controlled adjacent land regions.
  • Limits:
    • No more than six task forces may be plotted.
    • Movement from or into sea regions is not allowed.
  • Movement Rates: Every task force may move up to three regions. You may specify a fourth and/or fifth movement region but only 'fast' units are eligible to move these last two regions. Fast units are: Mechanized Infantry, Panzers, Fighters, Bombers, Jet Fighters, and Jet Bombers. Slower units in the task force will stop after the third region.
  • Conditional Movement: You may order conditional movement plot for a task force. (i.e. you may order a movement plot into a region that you don't control before the turn but hope to capture in phases 2 or 4.) If your movement plot contains a non-adjacent or non-controlled region, the task force will stop in the last valid region.

Administrative Sequence
All the necessary calculations in this section will be handled by the moderator's program and the player need not calculate her ending stockpile down to the last Ag Point. However, she might find it useful to know how everything is calculated.

Phase 1 - Economic Facilities Produce Commodities

  • Concept: Each economic facility will produce a number of the associated commodity at a rate equal to the associated economic efficiency. In plain English, if your Mining Efficiency is 250, all your mines will produce 250 MP each turn and if your Mining Efficiency was 255, they would produce 255 MP per turn.
  • Limits: Facilities do not produce on the turn they are captured during the military sequence. Economic facilities constructed in the Economic Sequence will produce on the same turn as they are built (assuming you still control the region).

Phase 2 - Economic Facilities and Population Consume Commodities

  • Concept: Nothing's free. In exchange for working in your economy and producing commodities, your Population Units, economic facilities, and military facilities will consume commodities each turn. Economic facilities captured during the military sequence do not consume commodities on that turn, but population in the captured region will consume from the new owner's stockpiles.
  • Limits: If you would consume more commodities than are available in your stockpiles, emergency purchases are made (at very bad prices). For each LP, MP, EP, FP, AP, or RP that you are short, one of the needed commodities will be purchased at a cost of 1 SP per commodity point. (This is bad. Try not to run any deficits!)
  • Unit Builds: The consumption rate of a depot or shipyard is constant. The consumption allows you to keep the base open and available for processing future military builds.
  • Efficiency: Production efficiencies have no effect on consumption rates. The consumption rates are constant.
  • Consumption Rates: are listed on the Production and Consumption charts.

Phase 3 - Imports Received from Other Countries

You will receive the commodities sent to you (exported) by other players. This is out of your control. Just pick "reliable" trading partners and hope for the best!

Global Wrap-up Sequence

Phase 1 - Private Market Price Recalculations

The purchases and sales made by all 28 players are totaled and the next turn's prices are adjusted according to the laws of supply and demand with a maximum price adjustment (up or down) of 25%. The market contains some inherent balancing mechanisms - the gold value of the difference between player sales and player purchases is reinvested to purchase resource commodities.

Phase 2 - Rankings Determined

Rankings are calculated in several categories and give you feedback on how your country compares to your fellow players. Note that any regions that you just captured would not count towards your economic ratings (economy, Population or Per Capita Income) because the facilities and population have not yet begun producing or consuming.

The top ten nations in each category will be listed on a page off the game's web homepage. In addition, your rankings will be listed on your turnsheet. If you do not place in the top ten in a category, your turnsheet will show a standing of "10+". The ranked categories:

  • Economy - Your economy is valued by calculating how much Gold you would receive if you sold a turn's worth of commodities (production minus consumption) at the current turn's Private Market sell prices.
  • Productivity - The average of all 7 economic efficiencies.
  • Per Capita Income - Your economy divided by your population.
  • Population - The total population in the regions you control.
  • Army Strength - The average of the attack and defense values your army units are summed and multiplied by your army efficiency.
  • Army Size - Your total number of army divisions.
  • Naval Strength - The average of the attack and defense values of your naval units (including submarines, sealift, and merchants) is summed and multiplied by your air/navy efficiency.
  • Navy Size - Your total number of naval vessels (including subs, merchants, and sealift).
  • Air Force Strength - The average of the attack and defense values of your air force units is summed and multiplied by your air/navy efficiency
  • Air Force Size - Your total number of air squadrons.
  • Basic Technology - Your BTech level.
  • Developments - The number of technologies you have developed.
  • Total Size - The total number of regions that you control (land and sea).
  • Land Regions - The total number of land regions that you control.
  • Sea Regions - The total number of sea regions that you control.

Phase 3 - Intelligence Reports

  • Concept: Some general information about the world is available to everyone. This information is posted to the game's homepage each turn. For instance:
  • Regions (Sorted by Country) lists the regions (land and sea) that are controlled by each player.
  • Regions (Sorted by Region) lists all 737 regions - who owns them, population, terrain, and whether they are a coastal or landlocked region.
  • Efficiencies lists the approximate military efficiencies for all 98 "countries" divided by 100. (If a "3" is listed for a country, that means its efficiency is somewhere between 300 and 399 inclusive).
  • A list of players is published each turn with their country names, adjectives, capitals, etc. In addition, if you click on the person's name, an e-mail window will pop up (if your browser is correctly configured).
  • A map is connected to the region list. If you move your mouse over a region, its id will appear in the status bar (at the bottom of your browser) and if you click on it, you will be linked to its stats in the regions chart in the bottom frame.

Phase 4 - News and Propaganda

  • Concept: The moderator will publish some news of the world's events; wars, economic trends, and maybe some opinions/speculations.
  • Propaganda: is a chance for you to do a little role playing and express yourself. Taking the persona of the leader of your country, you can have some fun. Some Propaganda examples are posted on the GE home page.
  • Submitting Press Releases: is done through the Press Release page on the game home page.
  • News, Moderator Ramblings, and Propaganda are all available through the game's home page.

Special Rules and Notes
  • Romin Jhors: is the name of the world. The western continent is called Major Jhors and the eastern continents (the colonial areas) are called North Minor Jhors and South Minor Jhors.
  • Neutral regions: are shown in gray on the game map, are uncontrolled by any players and represent the Belgiums and Hollands of the Romin Jhors world.
    • They will never trade with the market, each other, or the players, build facilities or units, move units, attack players, or raise efficiencies.
    • No particular pattern exists between the various neutral and colonial regions. I.e. if region "99-01" has a large army with a high efficiency, no conclusions can be made with respect to "99-02" and there is only a random difference between neutrals in one part of the world and neutrals in another part.
    • Neutral regions have no navies.
  • They generally have 12-17 population units and 9-12 economic facilities. They are defended by 2-5 infantry divisions with army efficiencies of 200 to 300.
  • Neutrals have no Intrinsic Defense.
  • Canal: Region 09-14 contains a canal that connects GL-01 and GL-03. Ships in 09-14 may thus move into either sea region. No new canals may be constructed in any other regions and the canal in 09-14 may not be destroyed.
  • Sea Regions: are labeled on the map with two letters, a hyphen and two numbers. No significance exists to the names of the oceans and the players are welcome to make suggestions in their press releases. Exceptions to this rule: as of game #3, the regions labeled GL-04, GL-05, and GL-06 are not Great Lakes sea regions - they are land regions with clear terrain.
  • Sea Names: The world oceans and sea regions are named:
    • AO is the Acific Ocean.
    • CB is the Colonial Bay.
    • GL (-01, -02, and -03) are Great Lakes.
    • LS is the Landed Sea.
    • MO is the Medicarte Ocean.
    • NO is the Northern Ocean.
    • PO is the Patlantic Ocean.
    • SO is the Southern Ocean.
    • TS is the Termidean Sea.
  • Rough Terrain: a land region with Mountains, Swamps, or Forests. They are pretty obvious on the map but if you are not sure, check the Regional Statistics page.
  • Clear Terrain: a land region with nothing much in it (on the map) except the region number.
  • East-to-West-Wrapping: The map wraps from the west edge to the east. For instance, AO-01 is adjacent to NO-14, NO-16, or PO-04.
  • Ice Cap: Some areas to the far north and south are impassable and you may not move units into them. They are the blank spaces north of regions 41-xx and 42-xx and south of 99-04 and 99-05.
  • Initial Commodity Stockpiles

    Setup Information

    • All Countries: start the game with:
      • 26 Light Industries at an efficiency of 140,
      • 26 Mines at an efficiency of 140,
      • 25 Energy Plants at an efficiency of 140,
      • 50 Farms with a Food efficiency of 70 and an Agriculture efficiency of 70,
      • 30 Heavy Industries running at efficiency of 140,
      • 30 Research Labs at an efficiency of 140,
      • 6 Air/Army Depots,
      • 4 Naval Shipyards,
      • 2 colonial regions
      • 5 Merchant ships, 16 Light Infantry, 8 Battleships, 8 Escorts, 6 Sealift
      • Army and Air/Navy efficiencies of 200 each.
      • BTech of 0.
      • Population Units sufficient to run all your facilities plus 25 unemployed (4 in each colony, port and capital plus another 9 scattered throughout the country. Colonies and ports will have about 12 to 18 population and capitals about 32 to 40.
      • Players must modify their country prior to the start of the game. You must:
        • Pick one major economic advantage (extra facilities and higher efficiency)
        • Pick two minor economic advantages (a few facilities and a slightly higher efficiency)
        • Pick one major economic disadvantage (fewer facilities and a lower efficiency)
        • Spend 10 points (minus any points you spent to pick your country) to get extra military units.
        • The website has more details at http://www.gunboatempires.com/setup/index.htm
      • The economic facilities are scattered throughout your country fairly evenly with the exception of the capital, port, and colonies which will consist of a combined total of about 40-50% of your economy. All of your initial military forces will be deployed in those 4 regions with the exception of the outposts controlled by countries #4, 6, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 21 which will start with one infantry each.
    • Island and Peninsular Nations: start with a superior naval power than most countries. Countries 1, 2, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28 are islands and countries 3, 4, 5, 9, 11, 17, 18, and 22 are peninsulas. Island nations start with an extra 25 points of Air/Navy efficiency, 2 Battleships, 1 Merchant, and 3 Sealift. Peninsular nations start with an extra 12 points of Air/Navy efficiency, 2 Escorts, and 1 Sealift.
    • Modifications: In addition to the economic and military setup adjustments listed above, you may name your country, capital, port, both colonies, your ruler's name and title, and the adjective and plural used to describe your citizens. You may also select which two regions will serve as capital and port to your home country.

     
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    Copyright 2001 - John M. Morris